- Placebo: An inactive substance or treatment that looks the same as, and is given the same way as, an active drug or treatment being tested. The effects of the active drug or treatment are compared to the effects of the placebo.
- Biomarker: Biomarkers are substances such as genetic material (DNA) and proteins found in blood and tumor tissue that might show if a cancer patient will respond or not respond to a treatment.
- Double-blind: The design of a clinical research study is "double-blind" when neither the participant nor the study physician knows whether the participant is receiving study drug or placebo
- BRCA1 and BRCA2: A tumor suppressor gene involved in hereditary cancers including ovarian cancer